Official and national Languages
Other spoken Languages
||Pashto (Pashtu, Pushtu) an Eastern Iranian language, it is the native language of the Pashtun people.
Dari Persian (Fārsī-ye Darī) also known as Afghan Persian.
|other Turkic and minor languages.
||Armenian (Hayeren) is an independent, one-language subgroup within the Indo-European
The unique Armenian alphabet, which consists of 39 characters, was created in
405 AD by a monk named Mesrop Mashtots.
|Russian widely used
||Azerbaijani (Azeri; a Turkic language of the Altaic family)
||Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6%
||English, Farsi, Urdu
||The Bhotes (the principal ethnic majority 50%) speak various Tibetan dialects
like Tshanglakha and Khenkha, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects like Lhotsamkha.
||Khmer spoken by more than 95% of the population (Khmer language is influenced
by spoken and written Thai)
||some French still spoken, English increasingly popular as a second language.
||Standard Chinese called also Putonghua (普通话) or Mandarin.
||Wu 吴语 - spoken in Shanghai and in Zhejiang province and Jiangsu province.
Yue 粤 - Cantonese, official in Hong Kong and Macau.
English (Hong Kong), Portuguese (Macau), Tibetan (Tibet), Mongolian (Inner Mongolia).
dialects like Min, Hakka (Kejia), Gan and Xiang.
||Russian, Armenian, Azeri and other.
is the official language in Abkhazia.
English (the most important language for national, political,
and commercial communication)
|Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi,
Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu.
||Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay)
||English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of
which is Javanese.
||Persian and Persian dialects 58% (Farsi)
||Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic
||Arabic (Arabiyya), Kurdish (official since 8 March 2004)
||Assyrian (Syriac-Aramaic), Armenian, Turcoman
||Hebrew (Ivrit), Arabic
||Yiddish, Ladino, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Tat, and Judeo-Berber,
English is the major
||English widely understood among upper and middle classes.
||Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official,
used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication")
||Korean (Choso'nmal or Choson'o)
||Korean (Hangungmal); Korean is written in Hangeul,
the Korean alphabet.
||English widely taught in junior high and high
||English widely spoken.
||note: in December 2001, the Kyrgyzstani legislature
made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kyrgyz.
||Thai, French, English, and various ethnic languages
||French, English, Armenian
||Putonghua (Mandarin), Portuguese
||everyone speaks Yue Chinese (Cantonese), English is used as a "working language".
||English, Chinese dialects, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi,
note: in addition, in East Malaysia several indigenous languages
are spoken, the largest are Iban and Kadazan.
||Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic)
||English spoken by most government officials.
||Khalkha Mongol (a branch of the Altaic family)
||Some English is spoken in tourist destinations,
135 minority ethnic groups have their own languages.
||Nepali (official and lingua franca of the country)
||sixty ethnic groups, who speak seventy different dialects
and eleven major languages like Tibeto-Burman, Lhotsamkha, Nepalbhasa, Tamang
languages; minorities Bhutanese (Dzongkha), Tibetan languages, possibly Chinese
note: many in government and business also speak English
||English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects.
||Arabic (Arabiyya), Hebrew (Ivrit, spoken by Israeli settlers
and many Palestinians)
||English (widely understood)
||Urdu, English (official and "lingua franca" of Pakistani elite
and most government ministries)
||Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Balochi
3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, Burushaski, and other 8%
||Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English. Filipino
is the national language. English is also widely used and is the medium of instruction
in higher education.
|| Major dialects: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or
Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense.
||English commonly used as a second language.
||Chinese, Malay, Tamil, English
||Sinhala (official and national language) 74%,
Tamil (national language) 18%
note: English is commonly used in government
and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population.
||Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English
||Chinese Mandarin (PuTongHua)
||Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects.
||Russian widely used in government and business.
||English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional
note: there are about 16 indigenous languages;
Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people.
||Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
||Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
|United Arab Emirates
||Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
||Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
||English (increasingly favored as a second language), some
French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Sources: Ethnologue, ISO Country Names (ISO 3166-1), ISO Languages Names
(ISO 639-1), CIA World Factbook and others.