Image: Walters Art Museum
Flag of Egypt Sinai Peninsula in Western Asia (Middle East). The country has a coastline at the Mediterranean Sea in north, and the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea in east. It is bordered by Libya in west, the Palestinian territory (Gaza Strip) and Israel in north east, and Sudan in south. Egypt shares maritime borders with Cyprus, Greece, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.
Modern Egypt became independent in 1922. From 1958 until 1961 Egypt was united with Syria as the United Arab Republic.
The Arab Republic of Egypt (the official name) covers an area of 1 million km², this is almost twice the size of France or more than twice the size of the U.S. State of California. Due to its large desert regions, the country's population is concentrated along the alluvial plains of the Nile Valley and Delta and along its coasts, only about 3% of the territory is inhabited.
Egypt has a population of approximately 92.4 million inhabitants (2017). Capital and largest city is Cairo. Spoken language are modern Standard Arabic, colloquial language is the Egyptian-Arabic dialect. Egypt is a country with a predominantly Muslim population, about 87% of Egyptians are Sunni Muslim. Islam religion controls many aspects of social life and is endorsed by law.
Arab Republic of Egypt | Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
In about 3100 B.C., Egypt was united under a ruler known as Mena, or Menes, who inaugurated the 30 pharaonic dynasties into which Egypt's ancient history is divided -- the Old and the Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire. The pyramids at Giza (near Cairo), which were built in the fourth dynasty, testify the power of the pharaonic religion and state.
Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.
The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.
A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
In January 2011, a popular protest began against the Mubarak government, the objective of the protest was for the removal of Mubarak from power. Hosni Mubarak ruled the country since 14 October 1981. The former Egyptian politician and military commander was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during the what is today known as the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
(Source: various sources)
Egypt is a member state of the League of Arab States
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Short form: Misr
Int'l short form: Egypt
Int'l long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
ISO Country Code: eg, egy
Actual Time: Thu-Feb-22 14:41
Local Time = UTC +2h
Egypt does not observe Daylight Saving Time (DST) since 2011
Country Calling Code: +20
Capital City: Cairo (al-Qa hirah)
(pop. estimated 19 million in metropolitan area)
Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Port Said, Suez, Ismailia
Type: Republic run by a Military junta
Independence: 1922 (from the UK)
Location:Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip
Area: 1 million sq. km (386 000 sq. mi.)
Terrain: mostly Desert, except the Nile valley and delta.
Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters
Population: 92.4 million (2017)
Ethnic groups: Egyptian, Bedouin Arab, Nubian
Religions: Sunni Muslim 90%, Coptic Christian
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French
Literacy--total adult: 55.2%, male: 66.6%, female: 43.6%.
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.
Agriculture products: Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats.
Industries: Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals.
Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, Turkey 5.8%, UAE 5.1%, USA 5.1%, UK 4.4%, India 4.1% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partners: China 13%, Germany 7.7%, USA 5.9%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.4%, Italy 4.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2015)
Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP)
Egypt in Figures
Egypt key statistical data.
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Official Sites of EgyptSome of the Government websites are still down or under reconstruction.
The Egyptian Presidency
President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. (the site is under development and reconstruction)
Egyptian Government Services Portal
Egypt's government portal.
Cabinet of Ministers
Official website of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Egypt's People Assembly
The Egypt Parliament.
Egypt State Information Service
Government news service.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Egyptian Embassy in Berlin (Germany)
Embassy of Egypt
Embassy of Egypt in the U.S., Washington D.C.
Egyptian Missions Abroad
Addresses of Egypt's Missions abroad.
Foreign Diplomatic Missions in Egypt
Addresses of foreign diplomatic representations in Egypt.
Central agency for public mobilization and statistics.
Egyptian Meteorological Authority (EMA)
Map of Egypt
Political Map of Egypt.
Administrative Map of Egypt
Map shows the governorates of Egypt.
Map of Sinai Peninsula
Google Earth Egypt
Searchable map/satellite view of Egypt.
Google Earth Cairo
Searchable map/satellite view of Egypt's capital city.
Google Earth Alexandria
Searchable map/satellite view of Egypt's second largest city Alexandria.
Pyramids near Cairo
Satellite view of the Pyramids.
Google Earth: Sahara in Southern Egypt
Satellite view/map of Irrigation in the Sahara in South Egypt.
Map of Western Asia
Map of South Western Asia and the Middle East.
Map of Northern Africa and the Middle East
Political Map of of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East.
Political Map of Africa
The 54 countries of Africa.
Map of Africa
Relief Map of Africa.
News from EgyptAccording to BBC, Egypt is a major regional media player. Its press is one of the most influential and widely-read in the region, and its TV and film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City - MPC an information and media complex located near Cairo.
Former President Hosni Mubarak's departure in early 2011 precipitated an editorial u-turn among state media outlets that had served for decades as government mouthpieces. Today, the Egypt state is a major force in the media and runs many TV and radio stations, websites, newspapers and magazines. But most pro-Islamist media have been closed, or broadcast now from abroad.
State Information Service SIS
State run news service in major languages.
Al Ahram Daily
State-owned daily news from Egypt. (Arabic)
Al Ahram Weekly
English language weekly online edition.
State-owned daily newspaper. (in Arabic)
Private run daily newspaper. (in Arabic)
Private run newspaper online.
Home of several Arabic Newspapers.
Youm7 (Al-Yawm al-Sabi)
Major Egyptian privately owned daily newspaper.
First Egyptian Portal.
Egypt News in English
Daily News Egypt
English-language national and international news.
English version of Al-Misri al-Yawm.
Egypt monthly magazine covers politics, society, culture, travel, and environment.
Middle East Time
The online edition of the Egypt based magazine.
Middle East News Agency (MENA)
Egyptian publicly-funded news agency, but its service is only for subscribers.
Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU)
The public broadcaster of Egypt. ERTU operates domestic and satellite networks, including Nile TV International and Nile TV thematic channels, it is operated by the Egyptian government.
A private satellite network, operates two channels: Dream 1 targeting young viewers and Dream 2, an entertainment channel.
Mehwar TV Channel
The private channel covers current events and has a particular focus on Egyptian topics.
Egypt Radio Television Union (ERTU)
ERTU operates eight national networks and external services Radio Cairo and Voice of the Arabs.
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Arts & Culture
__Museums & Libraries
The revival of the Ancient Library of Alexandria, dedicated to be a center of culture, science and academic research.
Collections of Egyptian artifacts, established in 1835.
Museums in Egypt
Information about Museums in Egypt by Tour Egypt.
Image: Nikolai Chakrkchiev
Business & Economy
Bank al-Markaz al-Misr
Central Bank of Egypt.
National Bank of Egypt
NBE is the oldest commercial bank in Egypt.
Egyptian Exchange (EGX)
The union of two exchanges, the Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchanges.
Nile Stock Exchange (NILEX)
The market for growing medium and small companies.
Egyptian capital market stock quotes and market watch.
Egyptian Exporters Association
EEA is a nonprofit organization founded by the Egyptian private sector exporters.
Egypt Yellow Pages
Egypt Yellow Pages is the official publisher of Yellow Pages in Egypt.
Air Arabia Egypt
Egyptian low-cost carrier based at Borg El Arab Airport in Alexandria.
The national flag carrier airline.
Egypt International Airports:
City, Location: Alexandria, Borg El Arab Airport (HBE) and El Nhouza Airport, IATA Airport code: ALY (closed until further notice)
City, Location: Aswan, Daraw Airport, IATA Airport code: ASW
City, Location: Cairo Int'l, IATA Airport code: CAI
City, Location: Hurghada Int'l, IATA Airport code: HRG
City, Location: Luxor, IATA Airport code: LXR
City, Location: Sharm El Sheikh, IATA Airport code: SSH
International Airports around the world
Egyptian National Railways
The national railway of Egypt.
Image: Kieron Wood
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Egypt - Country GuidesEgypt is relatively safe to travel in the main tourist regions. (see map below: Green: can go; orange and red: better no go)
Discover Egypt: Giza pyramid complex and Great Sphinx, rather old and rather impressive ancient Egyptian style burial site. Luxor's Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings, another testimony of the amazing Egyptian death cult at Luxor. Nile River, Egypts lifeline. Cairo, capital city and cultural and political center of the country, offers museums, monuments, mosques, and madrassas. Abydos, one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and the site of many ancient temples. Abu Simbel, two huge, old rock temples dedicated to Pharaoh Ramesses II. Red Sea, with tourist resorts at Hurghada, on Egypt’s mainland, Sharm el-Sheikh, and Dahab on the Sinai peninsula. Saqqara, ancient burial ground with a step pyramid. Siwa Oasis, isolated settlement near the Libyan border, with the ruins of an oracle of Ammon.
Egyptian Tourist Authority
Map source: UK Government: Foreign travel advice Egypt
Official site for the Government Tourist Offices in the Americas.
An Egypt guide with over 15,000 pages of information about every aspect of travel, ancient and modern Egypt.
Cities in Egypt:
Alexandria, Cairo, Luxor, Port Said, Sharm el-Sheikh, Suez
World Heritage Sites in Egypt
Abu Mena in the Mariut desert, was an early Christian pilgrimage center built over the tomb of the martyr Menas of Alexandria.
Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis
Thebes (today Luxor), the city of the god Amon, was the capital of Egypt during the period of the Middle and New Kingdoms.
One of the world's oldest Islamic cities founded in the 10th century.
Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur
Capital of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae
Contains the relocated monuments of the two Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel and the Sanctuary of Isis at Philae.
Saint Catherine Area
The Orthodox Monastery of St Catherine at the foot of Mount Horeb where Moses received the Tablets of the Law.
Ain Shams University
The third Egyptian University, founded in 1950.
Chief center of Islamic and Arabic learning in the world, founded in 970.
Giza, largest university in the Middle East, founded in 1908, it is the oldest university in Africa.
Central Library Cairo University
The website of the library (by now only in Arabic).
Environment & Nature Organizations Egypt
Ministry of State For Environmental Affairs
Official website of the Ministry for Environmental Affairs.
Association for the Protection of the Environment (APE)
A.P.E. works with the informal garbage collectors of Cairo known as the Zabbaleen.
Center for Environment & Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE)
The center acts as a catalyst, facilitating collaborative action between the Arab Region, Europe and the International Community in the fields of environment and development.
Center of Organic Agriculture in Egypt (COAE)
The center provides organic and biodynamic training and consultation, it is recognized by the European Union, international Demeter Organization and GLOBALGAP as an inspection body operating in a third country.
Wadi Environmental Science Centre
A "sustainable development" and "industrial ecology" demonstration and training center.
Cairo's recollections online - Egypt's first website and a journey into bygone days of Egypt.
Ancient History Encyclopedia: Egypt
Comprehensive portal with information about Egypt's ancient history
History of Egypt
From Ancient to Modern History of Egypt by Egypt TourismNet.
The Archeological Map of Egypt
The project puts all the Egyptian archeological sites on a multimedia geographic information system to document the Egyptian archeological heritage.
Abzu Regional Index: Egypt
Index of resources for the study of ancient Egypt, Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.
The British Museum's web site on ancient Egypt, includes information on Egyptian life, gods and goddesses, mummification, rulers, pyramids, temples, time, trade, and writing.
Ancient Egypt Online
A UK based site dedicated to the culture, language, religion and history of Ancient Egypt.
The Ancient Egypt Site
The history, language and culture of Ancient Egypt by Egyptologist Jacques Kinnaer.
Site about five thousand years of Egyptian civilization, view artifacts, interactive maps and timelines.
A cyberjourney to Ancient Egypt
International Association of Egyptologists
A modern journal of Ancient Egypt.
The Pharaonic Village
A journey back in time.
Sources and additional Information on Egypt
Amnesty International: Egypt
BBC - Country Profile: Egypt
The Heritage Foundation: Egypt
Human Rights Watch: Egypt
Reporters without borders: Egypt
UNDP in Egypt
The World Factbook -- Egypt
Other Countries of Northern Africa
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