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Anatolian peninsula in western Asia, with a small enclave in Thrace in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.
Flag of Turkey
Turkey is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in south and east and by the Black Sea in north, by Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan (exclave of Nakhchivan) in east, by Georgia in north east, by Bulgaria and Greece in north west, and by Iraq, and Syria in south east.
Turkey covers an area of 783,562 km², the country is more than twice the size of Germany or slightly smaller than the U.S. states of Texas and Louisiana combined.
Turkey has a population of 78,7 million people (in 2015), largest city is Istanbul, the national capital is Ankara, spoken languages are Turkish (official), Kurdish, and Arabic.
Republic of Turkey | Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Turkey is often called "the cradle of civilization," as it has been home to a rich variety of tribes and nations of people since at least 10,000 B.C.
The Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, replacing the dynastic and theocratic Ottoman system, with its Sultanate and Caliphate. The Republic was based on a secular democratic, pluralist and parilamentary system.
In 1945 Turkey joined the UN and became a member of NATO in 1952.
Turkey occupied the northern portion of Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island; relations between the two countries remain strained.
Periodic military offensives against Kurdish separatists have dislocated part of the population in southeast Turkey and have drawn international condemnation.
In recent years, Turkey has become a major tourist destination in Europe.
local short form: Türkiye
Int'l long form: Republic of Turkey
Int'l short form: Turkey
ISO Country Code: tr, tur
Actual Time: Thu-Feb-22 14:24
Local Time = UTC+2h
Daylight Saving Time (DST) March - October (UTC +3)
Country Calling Code: +90
Capital City: Ankara (pop. 3.7 million)
Istanbul (9.2 million), Izmir (3.2 million), Bursa (1.9 million), Adana (1.7 million)
Independence: 29 October 1923
Constitution: 7 November 1982
Location: southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia
Area: 783,562 km² (302,535 sq. mi.)
Terrain: Narrow coastal plain surrounds Anatolia, an inland plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world.
Highest Mountain: Mount Ararat 5,137 metres (16,854 ft)
Climate: Moderate in coastal areas, harsher temperatures inland.
Nationality: Noun--Turk(s). Adjective--Turkish
Population: 78.7 million (2015)
Ethnic groups: Turkish, Kurdish, other
Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian, Bahai and Jewish
Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, and Arabic
Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower.
Agriculture products: Tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock.
Industries: Textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper.
Exports - commodities: apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports partners: Germany 9.3%, UK 7.3%, Iraq 5.9%, Italy 4.8%, US 4.5%, France 4.1% (2015)
Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports partners: China 12%, Germany 10.3%, Russia 9.9%, US 5.4%, Italy 5.1% (2015)
Currency: Turkish New Lira (TRY)
Note: External links will open in a new browser window.
Official Sites of TurkeyTürkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaskanligi
Presidency of the Republic Of Turkey.
Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi
Site of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
T.C. Dışişleri Bakanlığı
The Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs provides comprehensive information on Turkey and Turkish culture.
Mission of Turkey to the United Nations
Site of the Turkish Mission to the UN.
Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in the U.S.
Türkische Botschaft Berlin
Embassy of Turkey in Germany.
List of Turkish Diplomatic Missions in the World
Addresses of Turkish Missions Abroad.
Diplomatic Missions in Turkey
Foreign Diplomatic Missions accredited in Turkey.
Government Bodies and Ministries of Republic of Turkey
List of links to Government Agencies and Ministries.
Map of Turkey
Political map of Turkey.
Map of Turkey
Shaded relief map of Turkey.
Google Earth Map Turkey
Searchable map and satellite view of Turkey.
Google Earth Map Hagia Sophia and the Blue Mosque
Satellite view with information about Hagia Sophia (Ayasofya) and
Sultanahmet Mosque (Blue Mosque), Istanbul.
Google Earth Mount Ararat
Satellite view and information about Mount Ararat, highest mountain in Turkey.
Map of the Mediterranean
Political Map of the Mediterranean.
Map of the Balkan Peninsula
Political Map of the Balkans.
Map of Western Asia
Map of Western Asia and the Middle East region.
Map of Europe
Political Map of Europe.
Image: Bernard Gagnon
The Turkish news agency
Turkish Newspaper. (in Turkish)
Turkish Newspaper (Turkish)
Daily Newspaper (Turkish)
Daily Newspaper (Turkish)
Daily Newspaper (Turkish)
Pro-government daily published in Turkey (in English).
Hürriyet Daily News
Oldest current English-language daily in Turkey.
US based web site featuring turkish daily news and information about Turkey.
Turkish Radio - Television Corporation - TRT
Provides national and international news in all major languages.
Conservative Turkish daily newspaper (in English).
TV online (in Turkish)
Turkish Radios Online
A guide to Turkish Radios
List of Turkish national and local news papers and news agencies.
Newspapers in Turkey
Wikipedia's list of newspapers in Turkey.
Bookmark/share this page
Arts & Culture
The Topkapi Palace Museum
Home of almost all the Ottoman sultans.
Turkish Arts & Culture
Turkey's culture information by the Ministry of Culture.
Extensive information about Turkish Cuisine, includes food history, a food dictionary and recipes.
Turkish Cultural Foundation
Turkish Cultural Foundation promotes Turkish culture and heritage.
Business & Economy
Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi
Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
Istanbul Stock Exchange
The official web site of the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE)
Turkish Standards Institution
Official website of the Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
This site is created for information about Turkey and about companies
that imports and/or exports goods, make booking and charters.
Foreign Economic Relations Board - DEIK
Site provides information about doing business in Turkey.
Turk Hava Yollari
Turkish Airlinesis the national airline of Turkey based in İstanbul.
The airline is based in Istanbul and operates holiday charter flights to Turkish resorts from around 100 destinations in 17 countries.
The airline is based in Antalya, it operates scheduled and charter flights to destinations in Europe.
Atatürk International Airport
(IATA: IST) The major international airport in Istanbul, located in Yeşilköy, on the European side of the city. The airport is named after Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the first president of the Republic of Turkey.
Esenboğa International Airport
(IATA: ESB), the airport in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey.
(IATA: AYT) Antalya, Turkey's primary holiday destination on the Mediterranean coast.
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryollar - TCDD
Turkish State Railways.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information
Destination Turkey - Travel and Tour Guides
Discover Turkey: Ankara, Anıtkabir (Atatürk mausoleum);
Istanbul, Dolmabahçe Palace (core of Ottoman power), Galata Tower, İstiklal Avenue (shopping), Grand Bazaar and Spice Bazaar, Hagia Sophia, Sultan Ahmed Mosque and Süleymaniye Mosque, Topkapı Palace (residence of Ottoman sultans);
Bodrum, Bodrum Castle, Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Tomb of Mausolus);
Göreme National Park (Cappadocia); Library of Celsus (Ephesus);
Pamukkale (white travertine terraces);
Mount Nemrut (2,134 m high summit with large statues from the 1st century BC.)
Turkey's official Tourism Portal.
Tourist and travel information by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Official Turkey guide for the Americas.
Turkey in Pictures
Images of Turkish regions, cities and landmarks.
Official website of the Turkish capital city.
Istanbul Convention & Visitors Bureau
A portal to the world's only city on two continents.
The Official City Guide.
The Ankara University, since 1946, formerly the Faculty of Political Science in Ankara (since 1859).
Istanbul Technical University
The world's third-oldest technical university, founded by Sultan Mustafa III in 1773.
The Istanbul University was established in 1453 by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II..
The Marmara University, a public university in the Fatih district of Istanbul.
The National Library, Ankara.
Turkish Academy of Science (TÜBA)
Founded in 1993.
Turkish Counsel of Higher Education
Environment & Nature
Ministry of Environment
Official website of the ministry.
Turkish Foundation for Combating Erosion, for Reforestation, and the Protection of Natural Habitats
Official website of TEMA with information about the work and goals of the foundation.
Environment Foundation of Turkey
Official website of the foundation with information about the activities of EFT.
Turkish Marine Research Foundation
An institution for marine environment protection and preservation, conducts research on marine life and habitat.
Society for the Protection of Nature DHKD
Information about the Society (in Turkish)
National Parks of Turkey
Wikipedia page with information about Turkish National Parks and preserved areas.
Private website about the life and work of the creator of modern Turkey.
Biography of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Article by the Turkey Ministry Of Culture and Tourism.
A Brief Outline of Turkish History.
The Ottoman Empire
The history, military, culture and arts of the Ottoman Empire.
Turkish National Archives
(until now only in Turkish)
Türk Tarih Kurumu
The Turkish History Society.
History of Turkey
Wikipedia's History of Turkey.
Directory of Turkey related sites.
Turkey's English-language travel, business, and cultural directory.
Open Directory Project: Turkey
Sources and additional Information on TurkeyBBC Country Profile: Turkey
The Heritage Foundation: Turkey
Human Rights Watch: Turkey
U.S. Library of Congress Country Study - Turkey
The World Factbook -- Turkey
Other Countries in the Mediterranean:
Albania | Algeria | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Croatia | Cyprus | Egypt | France | Gaza Strip | Greece | Israel
Italy | Lebanon | Libya | Malta | Monaco | Morocco | Slovenia | Spain | Syria | Tunisia
Other countries in the Balkan region:
Bulgaria | Macedonia, Rep. of | Montenegro | Romania | Serbia
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